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Glossary

Communication Disorders ↓

Many children have speech or language disorders—including stuttering, inability to articulate certain words, and auditory processing problems. Early intervention is the key to successful treatment.Communication disorders include problems related to speech, language and auditory processing. Communication disorders may range from simple sound repetitions such as stuttering to occasional misarticulation of words to complete inability to use speech and language for communications (aphasia).

Tourette's ↓

A neurological disorder that affects men as much as four times as much as women, Tourette's syndrome causes patients to have uncontrollable, involuntary tics and movements. These can sometimes manifest as uncontrolled shouts or vocalization. ourette's syndrome (TS) is an inherited, neurological disorder characterized by multiple involuntary movements and uncontrollable vocalizations called tics that come and go over years. In a few cases, such tics can include inappropriate words and phrases.

Social Phobia ↓

For 5.3 million Americans, an impending social engagement or performance situation brings fear that prompts avoidance or otherwise interferes with functioning. Social phobia typically begins before adulthood and is best treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy, with or without medications. Social phobia, also called Social Anxiety Disorder, is an anxiety disorder characterized by overwhelming anxiety and excessive self-consciousness in everyday social situations. People with social phobia have a persistent, intense, and chronic fear of being watched and judged by others and of being embarrassed or humiliated by their own actions. Their fear may be so severe that it interferes with work, school, or other activities. While many people with social phobia recognize that their fear of being around people may be excessive or unreasonable, they are unable to overcome it. They often worry for days or weeks in advance of a dreaded situation. In addition, they often experience low self-esteem and depression.

Blocking ↓

A sudden obstruction or interruption in spontaneous flow of thinking or speaking, perceived as an absence or deprivation of thought.

Blunted Affect ↓

Significant reduction in the intensity of emotional expression.

Anamnesis ↓

The developmental history of a patient and of his or her illness, especially recollections.

Auditory Halluciantion ↓

A hallucination involving the perception of sound, most commonly of voices. Some clinicians and investigators would not include those experiences perceived as coming from inside the head and would instead limit the concept of true auditory hallucinations to those sounds whose source is perceived as being external. However, as used in DSM-IV, no distinction is made as to whether the source of the voices is perceived as being inside or outside of the head.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) ↓

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that may develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which severe physical harm occurred or was threatened. Traumatic events that may trigger PTSD include violent personal assaults, natural or unnatural disasters, accidents, or military combat. Anyone who has gone through a life-threatening event can develop PTSD including military troops who served in wars; rescue workers for catastrophes like the 2001 terrorist attacks on New York City and Washington, D.C.; survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing; survivors of accidents, rape, physical or sexual abuse, and other crimes; immigrants fleeing violence in their countries; survivors of earthquakes, floods, and hurricanes; and those who witness traumatic events. Family members of victims can develop the disorder as well.

catharsis ↓

The healthful (therapeutic) release of ideas through \"talking out\" conscious material accompanied by an appropriate emotional reaction. Also, the release into awareness of repressed (\"forgotten\") material from the unconscious.

Competency ↓

Generally refers to some minimal mental, cognitive, or behavioral ability, trait, or capability required to perform a particular legal act or to assume some legal role.

Confrontation ↓

A communication that deliberately pressures or invites another to self-examine some aspect of behavior in which there is a discrepancy between self-reported and observed behavior.

Paranoia ↓

A condition characterized by the gradual development of an intricate, complex, and elaborate system of thinking based on (and often proceeding logically from) misinterpretation of an actual event; a delusional disorder. Despite its chronic course, this condition does not seem to interfere with thinking and personality. To be distinguished from schizophrenia, paranoid type.

Perception ↓

The process that organize information in the sensory image and interpret it as having been produced by properties of objects or events in the external, three-dimensional world.

Social Development ↓

The ways in which individuals' social interactions and expectations change across the life span.

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